I deliberately ground out the Strv 104 to get a talisman for it, and now it's not being discounted, again. . . It looked, ". "40 The results of the board, a two page report signed by S.V. The 38 cm turrets were protected by 360 mm (14 in) thick faces and 220 mm (8.7 in) thick sides. The ship first participated in the blockade of England but its most memorable action was the engagement with the British fleet resulting the sinking of the HMS Hood. I also note that of the three survivors from the HOOD one only was interviewed. The British went to action stations at 0015. Heavy fog prevented any hits from being scored. The uncontrolled burning of this quantity of propellant in the after magazines might have slowed briefly as the volume of the engineering spaces served as a space into which the gasses could expand, and as the vents directed much of the combustion products outboard. But although this expansion and venting could temporarily relieve the pressure, it could never be enough to prevent an explosion from eventually tearing the ship apart.91 Ironically, the chemical energy stored in the battlecruiser's after magazines - enough to lift her enemy over a kilometer in the air had it been employed to do so - had instead destroyed the Hood herself. On the night of 27–28 April, thirty-one Halifaxes and twelve Lancasters attacked; five of the bombers were shot down. For one example, see S.E. She became famous on her first war mission in May 1941, during the Atlantic sortie with the Bismarck in which the Hood was sunk and the Prince of Wales damaged. It would not have produced the very high column of flame of appreciable duration, which was seen by so many witnesses. . During the repair process, the 15 cm guns were modified to allow their use against aircraft, and specially-fuzed 38 cm shells for barrage anti-aircraft fire were supplied. The number of 2 cm guns was eventually increased to 58. It took the Germans three months to replenish the fuel spent in the attempt to intercept the two Allied convoys. . At this point in the narrative, an unknown author has neatly penned in the word "apparently. Perhaps, most significantly, he has no "walking on" experience with the ship herself. Nonetheless, perceived deficiencies in the design of Hood were considered serious enough to justify suspending work to allow a rather substantial redesign, including a reworked armor scheme and work was not resumed until 1 September. This is, in fact, exactly what many witnesses observed.63. . In simple terms Oo = Arcos [Cos(Fd)Cos(Id)Cos(Bpd - Rd)Sin(Fd) Sin(Id)], where Oo equals the resolved obliquity, Bpd equals the target angle, Id equals the inclination angle of the armor, Rd equals the rotation angle of the armor, basically its horizontal orientation within the ship, and Fd equals the angle of fall. Projected upon the ship's cross sections, a projectile with an angle of fall of 10.6°-13.9° striking about 6 meters short could have penetrated the hull just below the 308mm belt and penetrated almost unimpeded directly to the area of the after magazines. "Would a 15-in or 8-in shell striking Hood's side abreast the torpedo tubes detonate a warhead with a pistol in it?" cartridges by shell splinters would not blow up a Q.F. The Bismarck and the Prinz Eugen, however, were located by British reconnaissance in the North Sea near Bergen, and an intensive hunt for them was immediately set in motion. 17. We live in a marvelous age, an age when men have once more set foot upon the Titanic. and/or 4-in ammunition was certainly involved, was not the cause of her loss. . . These tests are reported in N.A. . A deck fire spread to the ammunition magazine for one of the main battery turrets, which caused a large explosion. On 15 October, the ship made the 200 nmi (370 km; 230 mi) trip to Tromsø under her own power, the last voyage of her career. There are also major difficulties in determining Hood's exact target angle at the time of the blast. Although the detonation of a torpedo tube nest could result in the sinking of a destroyer in fifteen minutes, it is clearly unlikely to have caused the loss of a battlecruiser in three. The Admiralty conducted a number of tests to resolve this issue, though it appears that none were specifically associated with the loss of Hood. Yamato and Musashi's designers actually had planned a new solution to the problem of long range accuracy. Although many people provided significant help in this project, special thanks to Chris Wright, who supplied many photos and nursed this project through to completion, to John Collison, who did outstanding work researching information in England, to Nathan Okun who oversaw the armor penetration calculations, suggested a number of interesting hypotheses (and who in the process ran up a rather enormous long distance phone bill), and to Mark Newton, for his help in providing ordnance information. Most details of the preamble to the final action are taken from, This abbreviation apparently refers to Admiral Holland, then in overall tactical command of. on the port quarter of 'Hood' and over by 200 yards. Hood's final voyage began at 0050 on Thursday, 22 May, 1941,3 as she passed Hoxa gate of Scapa Flow in company with battleship Prince of Wales and six destroyers. That the sinking of the HOOD was due to a hit from BISMARCK's 15-in shell in or adjacent to HOOD's 4-in or 15-in magazines, causing them all to explode and wreck the after part of the ship. [80], The wreck of Tirpitz remained in place until after the war, when a joint German-Norwegian company began salvage operations. . While stationed in Norway, Tirpitz was also intended to be used to intercept Allied convoys to the Soviet Union, and two such missions were attempted in 1942. Almost everyone agreed it was essentially noiseless, or at least sufficiently quiet that it was drowned out by the sound of Prince of Wales' own guns and machinery. . . . U.S. Navy, Bulletin of Ordnance Information 2-45, pp. This figure corresponds to only a 30° angle of elevation however, as Bismarck's guns could not elevate any higher. . . Sir Stanley Goodall, then Director of Naval Construction, held to a dissenting opinion, however: "If one or more shells from the 5th salvo burst in this devastated area [where fire was already burning], where there are eight torpedo heads, four each side, each containing about 500 lbs of TNT at the base of the mainmast, and if one or more of these warheads detonated, the result would be an explosion where it was actually observed. Searching the cross sections from the ship's plans at this angle of fall (instead of the 20° resolved angle of fall assumed in the Board's investigations) indicates that such an event, though not impossible, would have been rather improbable. a deep, dull, roar," "a noise like squashing a match box on a bigger scale," or as similar to the sound one might make by hitting a vent duct with a fist. Moreover, it will never be possible to give these ships such protection to their magazines as to ensure certainty [sic] that modern shells and bombs under all circumstances that may exist in modern actions cannot reach their magazines.". To give the ships an opportunity to work together, Admiral Karl Dönitz, who had replaced Raeder in the aftermath of the Battle of the Barents Sea on 31 December 1942, ordered an attack on Spitzbergen, which housed a British weather station and refuelling base. Evidence was presented that his unit had failed to help the Kriegsmarine when requested. [58] Repairs lasted until 2 April 1944; full speed trials were scheduled for the following day in Altafjord. going up very high . ". NAZI BATTLESHIP BISMARCK SINKS THE HOOD IN NORTH ATLANTIC DUEL; BRITISH GIVE CHASE; RAF FLIES TO CRETE, BLASTS 14 AIR TRANSPORTS read the verbose headline in the New York Times for Sunday the 25th. At this enquiry every individual in every ship present who saw the HOOD at or about the time of the blowing up should be fully interrogated."42. Vide, Okun, Nathan "Frames of Reference," unpublished manuscript in the author's collection. Thirty-eight minutes later a contact report was also received from the cruiser HMS Norfolk. The investigators who examined the fuze of the dud projectile which had struck Prince of Wales found that it had been actuated, probably upon water impact, but that shortly thereafter the powder train ". Insofar as Hood's belt projected only about 960mm below the water line, even a projectile with a "normal" underwater trajectory could have easily struck beneath it, and penetrated well into the ship before exploding. This strikes me as quite remarkable. Convoy PQ 17, which left Iceland on 27 June bound for the Soviet Union, was the next convoy targeted by Tirpitz and the rest of the German fleet stationed in Norway,[39] during Unternehmen Rösselsprung (Operation Knight's Move). "I saw a very vivid flash," he said. The entire final report is given in ADM 116/4351 pp. This was the ninth Christmas after Japan’s surrender and WWII’s end, and the first since the end of … heavy calamity." As noted above, it is also possible that the fatal projectile may have reached the magazines by passing over the belt, rather than under it. Fifteen minutes later, Brownson sank. Those charged with inquiring into more modern disasters are by comparison usually virtually awash in a sea of data. USS Prinz Eugen Ship of the Bikini atomic bomb tests of 1946 By M.W. For reference, a range table for Prinz Eugen's guns over the range of interest is reproduced here in Table IV. . went out." The addition of extra armor in the final design represented a significant improvement; without it, the immunity zone1 against German 380mm shells would actually have been negative. Although the actual position of the hit and the subsequent path of the projectile through the ship are problematical, it is clear that there are several routes by which one of Bismarck's 380mm shells might have reached the after magazines. [78] Ehrler was exonerated by further investigations which concluded poor communication between the Kriegsmarine and the Luftwaffe had caused the fiasco;[79] the aircrews had not been informed that Tirpitz had been moved off Håkøya two weeks before the attack. Walter Marshall, also on the Pom Pom deck, saw it as ". [22] On 16 January, British aerial reconnaissance located the ship in Trondheim. That the fire which was seen on HOOD's boat deck, and in which U.P. Later, he marked the position of the hit clearly on the ship's plans - close to the P.3 Twin 4-in Mounting about 275 station.16 Chief Petty Officer William Mockridge, who had done equipment trials of the 4-in guns and supply arrangements in 1940, saw the fire break out and was sure it was based in the 4-in ready use lockers, many of which were distributed in the vicinity. A very simple approximation, giving Hood a beam of 30 meters, would render a hit percentage in the vicinity of 30/190, or 15%.84. Although as late as 1940, Jane's Fighting Ships was stating that ". The graph clearly shows that in this particular situation the minimum number of penetrations occurs with deck thicknesses between about 125 and 150mm. [44][45] The Soviets claimed two hits on the battleship. she had to fight a ship 22 years more modern than herself. There is no conclusive evidence that one or two torpedo warheads detonated or exploded simultaneously with the magazines, or at any other time, but the possibility cannot be entirely excluded. This results in the values shown below in Table V. Computing the hit percentages and the number of penetrating hits that Bismarck might be expected to score on Hood over the range band from 15,000 - 25,000 meters at 1,000 meter increments, using optical fire control, and target angles from 0° to 90° in 30° increments, results in the graph shown below. . Some descriptions of the action suggest that Hood was either in the midst of completing her turn of 20 degrees away or that she had in fact completed it when the fatal explosion occurred.47 Witnesses in Prince of Wales, including Captain Leach and Cdr. . Both British Boards of Inquiry considered the possibility that Hood was destroyed by a projectile which fell slightly short of the target, and, after travelling some distance underwater, penetrated the hull and then detonated well below the waterline. On average, penetration via this route, especially by a damaged projectile, is therefore considered unlikely. Because of the mantlet armor, a projectile traveling this path would not have been capable of detonating a torpedo, but it still might have done collateral damage along the way. The turn would have only taken about twenty seconds to complete, however, and there is at least circumstantial evidence that Hood might indeed have at least begun to turn when she exploded. and First Sea Lord on 2 June, 1941, only nine days after the loss and only a week after Prince of Wales returned from Hvals Fjord.41 The report began: "This report contains may have been dealt with in the evidence and the Court's conclusions reached Its effects evidently did not penetrate deep into the ship, as Hood's engine rooms were apparently unaffected, and her speed remained unaltered to the end. The first force was unable to locate the cruiser, but part of the second force, which consisted of 52 aircraft, including 27 torpedo-carrying Beauforts, carried out an attack. . It was a narrow pillar," he recalled, ". "Did you feel any particular blast yourself?" ". 10:22 AM. . Ten vessels were assigned to the operation, scheduled for 20–25 September 1943. [19], The ship left Wilhelmshaven at 23:00 on 14 January and made for Trondheim. Sir Dudley's letter set in motion the activities of the first inquiry to investigate the causes of the loss, convening on 30 May 1941 and headed by Vice Admiral Sir Geoffrey Blake. knew a fair amount" about high explosive detonations, the court subjected him to a detailed examination. Further, the best estimates obtained by such extrapolation seem to yield a total penetration capability of only about 65mm. 14 signaled to destroyers; "If you are unable to maintain this speed I will have to go on without you. . [48] An assault force destroyed shore installations and captured 74 prisoners. Calculations yield an exit velocity of about 450 meters per second from the 127mm plate and 365 meters per second from the 178mm plate.55 The impact would have certainly decapped the projectile and forced it to exit closer to the normal than its impact angle, meaning that the projectile might well have been traveling nearly horizontal and nearly athwartships, as it left the plate. On the upper bridge, Midshipman W.J. Her propulsion system developed a total of 163,023 PS (160,793 shp; 119,903 kW) and yielded a maximum speed of 30.8 knots (57.0 km/h; 35.4 mph) on speed trials. [66][67] Goodwood IV followed on the 29th, with 34 bombers and 25 fighters from Formidable and Indefatigable. Battle, the report was also received from the nets and sunk a! Aerial bombs, and Tirpitz began sea trials minute by minute, if venting adequate. 1 ft diameter '' floating about him, evidently crushing tubes from the what happened to the prinz eugen of the German fleet day. 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what happened to the prinz eugen

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